README.md

Path: README.md
Last Update: Sat Feb 28 15:56:53 -0800 2009

Grit

Grit gives you object oriented read/write access to Git repositories via Ruby. The main goals are stability and performance. To this end, some of the interactions with Git repositories are done by shelling out to the system‘s `git` command, and other interactions are done with pure Ruby reimplementations of core Git functionality. This choice, however, is transparent to end users, and you need not know which method is being used.

This software was developed to power GitHub, and should be considered production ready. An extensive test suite is provided to verify its correctness.

Grit is maintained by Tom Preston-Werner, Scott Chacon, Chris Wanstrath, and PJ Hyett.

This documentation is accurate as of Grit 1.0.2.

## Requirements #############################################################

## Install ##################################################################

Easiest install is via RubyGems:

    $ gem install grit

or

    $ gem sources -a http://gems.github.com/ (you only need to do this once)
    $ gem install mojombo-grit

The gem from GitHub will generally be available sooner than the gem from Rubyforge. Both sources will eventually contain the same releases.

## Source ###################################################################

Grit‘s Git repo is available on GitHub, which can be browsed at:

    http://github.com/mojombo/grit

and cloned with:

    git clone git://github.com/mojombo/grit.git

## Usage ####################################################################

Grit gives you object model access to your Git repositories. Once you have created a `Repo` object, you can traverse it to find parent commits, trees, blobs, etc.

### Initialize a Repo object

The first step is to create a `Grit::Repo` object to represent your repo. In this documentation I include the `Grit` module to reduce typing.

    require 'grit'
    include Grit
    repo = Repo.new("/Users/tom/dev/grit")

In the above example, the directory `/Users/tom/dev/grit` is my working directory and contains the `.git` directory. You can also initialize Grit with a bare repo.

    repo = Repo.new("/var/git/grit.git")

### Getting a list of commits

From the `Repo` object, you can get a list of commits as an array of `Commit` objects.

    repo.commits
    # => [#<Grit::Commit "e80bbd2ce67651aa18e57fb0b43618ad4baf7750">,
          #<Grit::Commit "91169e1f5fa4de2eaea3f176461f5dc784796769">,
          #<Grit::Commit "038af8c329ef7c1bae4568b98bd5c58510465493">,
          #<Grit::Commit "40d3057d09a7a4d61059bca9dca5ae698de58cbe">,
          #<Grit::Commit "4ea50f4754937bf19461af58ce3b3d24c77311d9">]

Called without arguments, `Repo#commits` returns a list of up to ten commits reachable by the *master* branch (starting at the latest commit). You can ask for commits beginning at a different branch, commit, tag, etc.

    repo.commits('mybranch')
    repo.commits('40d3057d09a7a4d61059bca9dca5ae698de58cbe')
    repo.commits('v0.1')

You can specify the maximum number of commits to return.

    repo.commits('master', 100)

If you need paging, you can specify a number of commits to skip.

    repo.commits('master', 10, 20)

The above will return commits 21-30 from the commit list.

### The Commit object

`Commit` objects contain information about that commit.

    head = repo.commits.first

    head.id
    # => "e80bbd2ce67651aa18e57fb0b43618ad4baf7750"

    head.parents
    # => [#<Grit::Commit "91169e1f5fa4de2eaea3f176461f5dc784796769">]

    head.tree
    # => #<Grit::Tree "3536eb9abac69c3e4db583ad38f3d30f8db4771f">

    head.author
    # => #<Grit::Actor "Tom Preston-Werner <tom@mojombo.com>">

    head.authored_date
    # => Wed Oct 24 22:02:31 -0700 2007

    head.committer
    # => #<Grit::Actor "Tom Preston-Werner <tom@mojombo.com>">

    head.committed_date
    # => Wed Oct 24 22:02:31 -0700 2007

    head.message
    # => "add Actor inspect"

You can traverse a commit‘s ancestry by chaining calls to `parents`.

    repo.commits.first.parents[0].parents[0].parents[0]

The above corresponds to **master^^^** or **master~3** in Git parlance.

### The Tree object

A tree records pointers to the contents of a directory. Let‘s say you want the root tree of the latest commit on the *master* branch.

    tree = repo.commits.first.tree
    # => #<Grit::Tree "3536eb9abac69c3e4db583ad38f3d30f8db4771f">

    tree.id
    # => "3536eb9abac69c3e4db583ad38f3d30f8db4771f"

Once you have a tree, you can get the contents.

    contents = tree.contents
    # => [#<Grit::Blob "4ebc8aea50e0a67e000ba29a30809d0a7b9b2666">,
          #<Grit::Blob "81d2c27608b352814cbe979a6acd678d30219678">,
          #<Grit::Tree "c3d07b0083f01a6e1ac969a0f32b8d06f20c62e5">,
          #<Grit::Tree "4d00fe177a8407dbbc64a24dbfc564762c0922d8">]

This tree contains two `Blob` objects and two `Tree` objects. The trees are subdirectories and the blobs are files. Trees below the root have additional attributes.

    contents.last.name
    # => "lib"

    contents.last.mode
    # => "040000"

There is a convenience method that allows you to get a named sub-object from a tree.

    tree / "lib"
    # => #<Grit::Tree "e74893a3d8a25cbb1367cf241cc741bfd503c4b2">

You can also get a tree directly from the repo if you know its name.

    repo.tree
    # => #<Grit::Tree "master">

    repo.tree("91169e1f5fa4de2eaea3f176461f5dc784796769")
    # => #<Grit::Tree "91169e1f5fa4de2eaea3f176461f5dc784796769">

### The Blob object

A blob represents a file. Trees often contain blobs.

    blob = tree.contents.first
    # => #<Grit::Blob "4ebc8aea50e0a67e000ba29a30809d0a7b9b2666">

A blob has certain attributes.

    blob.id
    # => "4ebc8aea50e0a67e000ba29a30809d0a7b9b2666"

    blob.name
    # => "README.txt"

    blob.mode
    # => "100644"

    blob.size
    # => 7726

You can get the data of a blob as a string.

    blob.data
    # => "Grit is a library to ..."

You can also get a blob directly from the repo if you know its name.

    repo.blob("4ebc8aea50e0a67e000ba29a30809d0a7b9b2666")
    # => #<Grit::Blob "4ebc8aea50e0a67e000ba29a30809d0a7b9b2666">

[Validate]